Public Health Governance we are entering a new era of globalization, where there are no geographical boundaries between countries. People and goods are free to move between countries, opening new avenues for easy sharing of economic, technological, political, social, scientific, and cultural values. Globalization is not only a boon for the exchange of relations, knowledge, human workforces, information, and technologies;
However, it is a restriction on Public Health Governance affecting health as well as other aspects of human activity. The results can be either direct, at the level of the entire population, individuals, and healthcare delivery systems, or indirectly, through the economy and other factors, such as education, sanitation, and water supply.
High rates of migration, shifting of the human task force and population movements are the main contributors to the deepening international contacts and epidemic outbreaks in the world. The transmission of influenza epidemics in the early 20th century and the continental outbreak of the cholera epidemic in 1990 are just two examples of Hundred dollar hoverboards
With the explosive growth of travelers, there is also a tendency for vectors to relocate to new locations and adopt new habitats. The famous tiger mosquito, a potential vector for the dengue fever virus, was introduced in the United States in the shipment of imported tires from North Asia to the United States.
When such disease-causing germs travel with an infected human and attack a new host, they are likely to make some changes at their genetic level and develop a new drug resistance strain. Tuberculosis bacilli is an example of such a public health nuisance.
Similarly, globalization has helped many multinationals to expand their businesses and make them easier to reach even in remote parts of the world. The world’s popular brand of drinks and fast food is now readily available. It has replaced traditional and local nutritional diets with fats and calories. The free and uncontrolled trade of alcohol, tobacco, and neurotic drugs is causing socio-cultural imbalances, family problems, and various mental disorders.
It is not just people, microbes, and material things that move from one country to another; It is also an idea and lifestyle. The adoption of sedentary lifestyles, increased use of tobacco, unhealthy diet and harmful use of alcohol have led the world to epidemics of non-communicable diseases.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 14 million people in developing countries die from premature heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and asthma, with major negative consequences for socio-economic development.
On the other hand, globalization is reducing the flow of information on health care. The coherent strategy of inter-countries, international contacts, and multinational or global efforts is playing an important role in addressing the deep problems of poor health in the world. 189 countries have set targets for the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. We are moving forward to reduce the burden of HIV / AIDS, malaria, and TB and improve maternal and child health by 2015.
By 2015 through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). , Most countries aligned to impose stronger controls on tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, FAO, and ILO are working in cooperation for the betterment of people’s health. Similarly, global health initiatives such as the Global Fund for the Treatment of AIDS, TB, and Malaria, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Vaccination, intend to promote health.
However, such global efforts are being criticized for increasing dependence on international organizations, insensitivity to local cultures, exclusion, and inequality. Part of it is still debated over lack of coordination, cooperation, accountability, and transparency.
Finally, it is an indisputable fact that globalization has a myriad of negative effects on public health administration. Nevertheless, it also brings an opportunity to deal with health problems and to establish mutual understanding and empathy between countries.
The free and fast flow of health information, knowledge, and research findings cannot be neglected. Cooperation between countries, national and international organizations, and other stakeholders can play an important role in mitigating such challenges through regulations, policy recommendations, advocacy, and joint efforts.
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