Flowmeters are essential devices used in various industries to determine the fluid flow rate. These fluids can be water, oil, natural gas, or steam. While all flowmeters have a standard function, they are a bit different in how they work.
Continue reading; we are going to discuss some considerations for choosing the best flowmeter for your work. Then look at seven popular and their flow meter types applications.
1. Differential Pressure Flowmeters
One of the very popular types of flowmeters is known as a differential pressure flowmeter. This flowmeter type depends on certain rules which manage liquids and gases passing through pipes.
A liquid that moves from a wider pipe to a narrower one will have to go through a high velocity to control a consistent flow rate. When a liquid’s velocity increases, the pressure reduces. What leads to a change in pressure has to do with flow rate?
Differential flowmeters are known throughout several industries, which need to measure the flow rate of fluids. The oil and gas, water treatment, pharmaceutical, food beverage, mining, chemical manufacturing, and HVAC industries.
2. Velocity Flow
When it comes to velocity flowmeters, the flowmeter working principle is that the flow rate of a fluid is similar to a cross-section of the pipe multiplied through the liquid’s velocity. By measuring the speed of the liquid flowing via the pipe, a velocity flowmeter can detect the fluid’s flow rate. Several flow meter types fall into the category of velocity flow.
3. Positive Displacement
This is also a common type of flowmeter is the positive displacement flowmeter. A PD flowmeter is the only type of flowmeter that shows a fluid’s flow rate by measuring the volume of fluid that comes through the meter. Rather than determining some other aspect of the juice related to flow rate and calculating the flow rate based on that.
The meter has rotating components, which is similar to mechanical cogs. The flow of the fluid through the meter makes these cogs rotate. Unlike gears that fit tightly together, these rotating components trap tiny pockets of liquid in the space between them as they turn. The mechanism counts the rate of rotation of these components to track the rate of fluid that has passed. This method works because the cogs’ rotational velocity connects directly to the fluid’s flow rate.
The exact process that a PD flowmeter determines the rate at which the rotating parts turn can vary. One way is for the components to have magnets that force sensors outside the liquid chamber.
Positive displacement meters have a habit of being extremely accurate, and this accuracy is partly because their make accounts for nearly all the liquid which passes through. The margin for inaccuracy relates only to the tiny amount of fluid that manages to bypass the seal of the moving parts and is sometimes known as “slippage.
4. Mass Flow
As the name suggests, a mass flowmeter determines the mass flow of fluid as it moves through a pipe. Mass flowmeters are popular in the pharmaceutical, mining, wastewater, power with chemical and gas industries. These flowmeters are the best selection when you have to measure mass or if you’re operating with a very viscous substance.
One popular means of determining mass flow is heating a liquid section and noting the resulting temperature difference. A similar process is making a probe at a constant temperature and knowing how much energy the probe needs.
Mass flowmeters that use heat to determine the mass flow are known as thermal dispersion flowmeters. Another common type of mass flowmeter is a Coriolis mass meter. Regardless of which method your meter uses to determine the mass flow rate. You need to note that there is a difference in mass flow rate with volumetric flow rate.
5. Open Channel
Also, there’s an open-channel flowmeter. This type of flowmeter is a dam-like structure. Usually, the essential device is either a weir or a fume. You can know the difference between these two types of components in a moment.
When you know the relationship between depths with the flow in your pipes, then by placing an object in the pipe, the meter may note the difference in depth and use this information to determine the flow rate—the significant difference between weirs and flumes in the shape they have.
Weirs are openings at the top of a dam that can either be rectangular or V-shaped. As the water or other liquid flows over the dam through the weir, the height of the fluid may increase, and a more significant increase in depth shows a higher flow rate.
6. Magnetic Flowmeters
This operates on Faraday’s Law of magnetic induction. When a conductive liquid flows in a magnetic field, a voltage emits between two electrodes at right angles to the fluid velocity and field orientation.
The flow pipe has a fixed area & field intensity, so the produced voltage is linearly related to the volumetric flow rate. Flow rate does not affects by fluid density, consistency, viscosity, turbulence, or piping configuration.
Highly accurate because of the absence of external sensing lines and corrosion-resistant using Teflon liner and platinum electrodes. It is a large flow measuring ranges & no pressure drop.
7. Variable Area Flowmeters/ Rotameters
Variable area flowmeters are one of the mainly used flow meter types. Inside the pipe, we have a free-moving metering float containing a vertical glass or plastic tube. The size of the tube changes from top to bottom; this is why it got its name as a variable area flowmeter.
That free-moving float balance inside a vertical tapered tube. As the liquid moves upward, the float remains steady as the dynamic forces acting on it are still zero.
The flow rate is determined by the position of the float relative to a calibrated scale. Simple, robust, and linear output.
It does not need external impulse or lead lines. Pressure dropping is minimal and relatively constant.
There are many flow meter types, each of which provides several advantages and potential issues. The best flowmeter will assist your company in keeping track of the flow rate of water, chemicals, or some fluid that flows via your plant’s pipes.
To make sure the flowmeter continues working on its valuable purpose, be sure to detect the potential problems as soon as they arise.